Modafinil, commonly sold as Provigil, is considered one of the first groundbreaking eugeroic drugs to hit the market. It has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of various wakefulness disorders such as narcolepsy- a condition resulting in excessive daytime sleepiness, obstructive sleep apnea and shift work disorder. For those people without wakefulness disorders, this drug is often used on an off-label basis for cognitive enhancement by means of altering the CNS levels of histamine. Also, research has shown that it boosts working memory, but the long-term effects are relatively unknown.
Modafinil (Provigil) is categorized under Eugeroics.
It is also known as acetamide, Provigil, Modalert, Modapro, Alertex, 2-[Diphenylmethylsulfinyl]acetamide.
Also Knownacetamide, Provigil, Modalert, Modapro, Alertex, 2-[Diphenylmethylsulfinyl]acetamide
DescriptionModafinil, commonly sold as Provigil, is considered one of the first groundbreaking eugeroic drugs to hit the market. It has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of various wakefulness disorders such as narcolepsy- a condition resulting in excessive daytime sleepiness, obstructive sleep apnea and shift work disorder. For those people without wakefulness disorders, this drug is often used on an off-label basis for cognitive enhancement by means of altering the CNS levels of histamine. Also, research has shown that it boosts working memory, but the long-term effects are relatively unknown.
Typical DoseThe standard dosage consists of 200g/day
Potential side effects include headache, insomnia, lack of appetite, hypertension, nervousness, dry mouth, nausea and vomiting.
Modafinil (Provigil) Review: What is Modafinil (Provigil)?
Modafinil, Not Your Ordinary Energy Booster
Having to work or study when you are sleepy is a very difficult task to do, right? Your brain does not function normally, so does your body. This then will leave you feeling frustrated and stressed since you will not get any of your tasks done right and at the right time. But, all thanks to Modafinil, your problem can now be solved. You may now work for long periods of time and at the full potential of your brain without worrying about getting drowsy or fatigued. This nootropic surely works wonders for you. It promotes wakefulness and vigilance while having you an enhanced cognitive function with an increased ability to learn, sharper mind, and improved focus and motivation. So, let us take a look at what Modafinil really is and know how potent it can get.
How does Modafinil work?
The effect of Modafinil on wakefulness and cognition is very promising but, how does it really act on our brain? Still, the exact mechanism of action of Modafiinil remains unclear but, there are some studies that might bring about the perspective on Modafinil’s ways. One study entitled “Mechanisms of Modafinil: A review of current research,” claims that Modafinil enhances cellular metabolism and reduces free radicals in neurons. This mechanism is then believed to be the one responsible for the enhanced neurocognitive function. As for Modafinil’s vigilance effects, it may be attributed to the reduction in the brain’s oxidation or an increase in Creatine levels within the brain’s cortex. (1)
On the other hand, some studies also have come up that Modafinil works by altering the levels of histamine in the central nervous system thus, producing its benefits (8). However, further researches and clinical studies should still be conducted about Modafinil to come up with the understanding of its exact mechanism of action.
Modafinil vs. Adrafinil
At a closer point of view, Adrafinil works by acting as a pro-drug to Modafinil. Meaning to say, it increases the concentrations of Modafinil in the body and the liver changes Adrafinil to Modafinil. But how do the two drugs differ from each other? Basically, both of them produce the same effects such as an improved day-time alertness, motivation, mood, and energy levels. And unlike other stimulants, Adrafinil and Modafinil have their edge since they do not produce side effects like anxiousness, irritability, and nervousness. Because of this, the two eurgoic drugs are a good option to consider. (9)
Although Adrafinil and Modafinil appear to be structurally similar, they pose their difference by the way the body processes them. Modafinil is being processed mainly in the liver though metabolic activity and with the help of the enzyme CYP or Cytochrome P450. On the other hand, Adrafinil is changed into Modafinil in the liver. Meaning to say, in order for Adrafinil to be efficiently and correctly converted into Modafinil, it should rely greatly on metabolic processes. Because of this, Adrafinil requires the greater use of the enzyme Cytochrome P450. And this is how Adrafinil is metabolized, through the conversion to Modafinil. (9)
Moreover, since Modafinil does not need to transform in the liver, it will generally require a lesser dosage compared to Adrafinil to reach its optimal effect. It has been recommended that Adrafinil dosage may be at 600mg-1200mg daily and in contrast to that, Modafinil will require a much lower dosage of 100mg-200mg only daily. But also, we should remember to take the lowest dose possible when starting off with any medication. (9)
Furthermore, the speed and rate at which the liver can convert Adrafinil into Modafinil depends with two factors. First, it is due to the individual’s metabolic rate and secondly, the health and efficiency of the liver. Because of this, you may notice that two people may respond in a different manner when administered with Modafinil of the same dose despite having the same age and gender. (9)
Modafinil in the field of Medicine
Although Modafinil has been popularly used today by healthy individuals as an aid for their academic life, work, and other important activities, it also serves to be an important component in the treatment of certain conditions. These include Narcolepsy, Shift work sleep disorder, and Obstructive sleep apnea or Hypopnea syndrome.
According to webmd.com, "Narcolepsy or Somnolence is a neurological disorder that affects the control of sleep and wakefulness." It is characterized by an overwhelming daytime drowsiness and sudden attacks of sleep at any time of the day and in whatever activity an individual is doing or participating in. Also, individuals who suffer from this condition find it hard to stay awake for long periods of time (2). What’s worse is that Narcolepsy may even be accompanied by a sudden loss of muscle tone which then leads to weakness and loss of muscle control (7). Because of this condition, there would be a disruption in the individual’s supposedly normal daily activity. It might lead him/her to be unproductive and would generally interfere with the individual’s lifestyle. With the scenario, it makes Modafinil a very good choice of treatment. Due to its wakefulness-promoting property, Modafinil can act to the central nervous system to counteract the effects that Narcolepsy brings.
How can I maximize the effects of Modafinil?
1. Proper Modafinil dosage and frequency It is imperative for any drug or supplement to be taken at the right amount and frequency for it to produce the desired effects while possibly eliminating or minimizing the undesired ones. As for Modafinil, how much of it do we really need for us to stay awake while being at our top performance? Researchers generally suggest that a daily Modafinil dose of 100 mg to 200 mg may be used and is administered once daily (3). One-time administration of Modafinil since it has a long half-life of about 13-15 hours (5). It is best to be taken in the morning so as to promote wakefulness throughout the day and avoid taking it later than midday since it may interfere with your sleeping at night. Also, it may be taken with or without food.
For individuals who need to work or stay awake for long periods of time, Modafinil would be best to use 1 hour before work. Specifically for Narcolepsy, Shift work sleep disorder and Obstructive sleep apnea/ Hypopnea syndrome, the adult dose would be 200 mg taken orally in the morning (4). However, there are some special populations that you might want to consider when administering Modafinil. Such as for people with Liver diseases and conditions, a dose of 100 mg only, taken once daily is recommended. As for the geriatric population and individuals with renal impairment, Modafinil dosage should be lower than the usual recommended dose and it would be best to consult your doctor or healthcare provider regarding this issue.
On the other hand, some circumstances may vary and it would be best to follow your doctor’s prescription since Modafinil dosage and frequency may be influenced by an individual’s condition and health concerns.
2. Stacking Modafinil Stacking supplements has already been a popular practice at the present time. This is mainly done to maximie a drug’s potential and also, in order to yield more positive effects, to synergize each other, or to eliminate or minimize the side effects that the drugs may provide. A popular nootropic that is often stacked with Modafinil is Noopept. Noopepet is a very potent nootropic and when used alone, it can increase an individual’s learning capacity and can improve memory and reasoning skills. And when this powerful nootropic is being stacked with another powerful one such as Modafinil, your stack would definitely do wonders and would not fail you even in a second. Modafinil with Noopept is such a great combination, leading you to an enhanced learning capacity and generally an improved cognitive function while making you awake for long periods of hours. Because of this, you will surely have an increased productivity and creativity levels either at home, at school or at work. (6)
Aside from the Modafinil-Noopept stack, there are numerous other nootropics where you can stack your Modafinil such as the Racetams, Cholines, and other stimulants. You can even personalize your own stack depending on your needs and preference. But remember, be cautious when taking Modafinil with other drugs and it would be best if you have a thorough understanding about each of the drugs that you are planning to stack with.
On the other hand, there are important notes to consider when taking Modafinil. Since it may cause dizziness, it is advised not to take alcohol and some medications that may cause such side effects since these effects may heighten up thus, impairing your ability to think and act properly.
Moreover, Modafinil dependency may occur when taken for a long duration of time and may also cause Modafinil withdrawal symptoms when it is stopped abruptly. To prevent unwanted effects that Modafinil may bring, it would be best to talk to your doctor or healthcare provider for proper consultation.
Where can I buy Modafinil?
Your favorite powerful nootropics are now available at the market today and can easily be purchased over the internet. However, some countries do not give you an easy access to purchase Modafinil over the counter. In the United States, United Kingdom, Australia and Canada, a prescription from your doctor is needed for you to buy Modafinil or Provigil as one of its brand name. You may try buying generic adrafinil, waklert from overseas if you are unable to pay for your prescription.(6)