Helps counter iodine toxicity and oxidative stress, especially in the eyes. Helps aid thyroid function.
An essential element to most cells and especially the thyroid. Its main mechanisms are through promoting the healthy release of T3 and T4 hormones from the thyroids and the detox of bromine.
A peptide with powerful anti-aging properties. Its main mechanism of action is increasing telomerase; telomeres are like caps of genetic material on the ends of chromosomes. Each time a cell divides through mitosis it loses some telomere length. The result of missing telomeres is programmed cell death, telomerase is an enzyme that rebuilds those telomere caps, preventing cell death. Because of the decreased cell death, it could increase life span and healing speed. The increased healing speed not only applies to wounds, but can accelerate muscle healing and support skin health in the process. It even can reduce cancer risk by an increase in natural melatonin production, as a result it could also aid in deep sleep.
The extract of pine bark that shows neuroprotective benefits. It's main mechanism for increasing mental performance is by modulating mNOS.
An herb with various different bodily benefits. It first and foremost increases BDNF and enhances NGF effects such as neuron survival and growth. One of its main mechanisms is being a cholecystokinin receptor agonist, which is responsible for its anxiolitic effects. It helps increase blood circulation and reduce the hardening of arteries allowing more oxygen and nutrients to the brain. Plus it aids the liver, regulating the metabolic processes that could support brain health. It shows synergy with Vitamin E.
An antioxidant extract that has been shown to increase BDNF and NGF related neurite outgrowth. It has cardiovascular benefits to aid in nutrient and oxygen transport to the brain. It aids the immune system protecting the brain from pathogen attacks. It contains caffeine which is an adenosine antagonist promoting wakefulness, increases epinephrine and norepinephrine enhancing mental stamina and alertness, and it modulates dopamine improving mood and motivation. It also has l-theanine, which is synergistic with caffeine in regards to smoothing out the jitters by modulating GABA. It also further modulates dopamine and increases levels of BDNF slightly.
A peptide very similar to semax, but more known for its anxiolitic effects. It has similar mechanisms to semax in modulating BDNF expression in the hippocampus and modulating catecholamines increasing cognition and reducing anxiety. However, it also modulates the immune system regarding T helper cells, which can protect the brain from infection and seems to have an impact on its anxiolytic effects.
A peptide like noopept with powerful nootropic effects. It rapidly elevates dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems and stimulates the cholinergic and glutamatergic systems, sharply increasing motivation and mood, and enhancing learning, cognition, and alertness through these systems. It has a profound impact on BDNF and NGF levels, even increasing the sensitivity of TrkB receptors, increasing neurogenesis and synaptogenesis especially in the hippocampus and basal forebrain, having a vast number of benefits including enhanced reasoning, verbal fluency, mental clarity, recall speed, antidepressive and anxiolitic effects.
Also known as black pepper, its purpose being the enhancement of absorption of many of the other nootropics in this stack.
A natural compound and the active ingredient in curcumin. It can increase BDNF, enhancing neurogenesis and synaptogenesis. It decreases inflammation in the brain, and decreases beta-amyloid, the primary cause a plaques in brain that lead to alzheimer's. It also has immune system benefits, protecting the nervous system from infection. Finally, it shows synergy with fish oil.
A synthetic analogue of CoQ10 that also acts in the electron transport chains in mitochondria. Because of this function, it could increase the output of ATP in neurons, enhancing cognition. Not only that, but it also has an influence on NGF, promoting the creation, survival, and growth of neurons. This is very apparent in its influence on axon creation and growth, which allows electrical impulses along neurons to move much faster, potentially increasing thinking speed. It is also known for increasing acetylcholine and slightly increasing dopamine and serotonin, increasing mood, focus and cognition. Plus it increases communication between the hemispheres of the brain, increasing creative thinking and reasoning.
A natural herb used as a sleep aid. It does this by enhancing GABA signaling.
Magnesium Glycine is a compound that contains both the mineral magnesium and the amino acid glycine. Magnesium can modulate NMDA receptors and increases BDNF levels, in turn it is known to aid in memory, regulating synaptic plasticity, and enhancing sleep quality. Glycine is known to signal in glycine receptors and some adenosine receptors, acting mainly as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. Because of it being inhibitory, it could be used as sleep aid; because it can signal to some adenosine receptors, it can increase BDNF to some extent. It shows some synergy with Vitamin D.
The precursor to serotonin, which in turn produces melatonin. The increase in serotonin signalling in general can regulate mood and appetite. Serotonin signalling in the 5-HT2A specifically can have an influence on neurogenesis in the hippocampus, which helps reduce anxiety, depression, and aids memory. The increased production in melatonin can act as a sleep aid and decrease brain cell death, further enhancing neurogenesis.
A natural hormone used in the body's circadian rhythm. It acts as a powerful antioxidant that easily crosses the blood brain barrier. It aids in sleep and reduces brain cell death, increasing the quality of neurogenesis. It shows synergies with resveratrol, for AMPK activation, alpha-lipoic acid, for antioxidation, and galantamine for neuroprotection.
A compound synthesized from GABA and a Phenyl group. Unlike normal GABA, it is able to cross the blood brain barrier, delivering effects from oral ingestion. It's GABA signaling is not selective, so it binds to both GABA-A and GABA-B receptors, giving it great anxiolitic and sleep aid properties. In addition to GABA signaling, the phenyl group can increase levels of dopamine, regulating sleep patterns and and increasing motivation.
An alkaloid that improve the quality of sleep. It works as a cholinergic, it inhibits acetylcholinerase, the enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine. Normally acetylcholine isn't even reabsorbed into the axon terminal where it is released. Instead it is broken down in the synaptic cleft. If it isn't broken down then the acetylcholine can stay linked to receptors. This type of mechanism is used medically to treat alzheimer's, but recreationally as a sleep aid. Because acetylcholine has such an influence on REM sleep, galantamine is often used to induce lucid dreaming, being aware of a dream.
A nutrient and a carbohydrate similar to glucose. It is synergistic with melatonin and could be used to aid sleep and reduce anxiety. It also increases the sensitivity of serotonin receptors, such as the 5-HT2A receptor responsible for neurogenesis.
A natural herb that is shown to slightly increase BDNF. BDNF is known to greatly increase both synaptogenesis and neurogenesis. It works in a very similar way to NGF because they are both considered neurotrophins. They works by protecting brain cells and increases their survival rate. It also acts as an antioxidant, further protecting neurons. Plus it is great at protect the liver from harmful toxins, this allows the liver to process and metabolize many other substances with greater effectiveness. This has the potential to increases the effects of many other items listed.
A peptide that has many mechanisms of action. It enhances the activity of acetylcholine and stimulates glutamine receptors allowing the brain to work at a faster pace. It also increases the amount of oxygen present in the brain, further increasing energy output. Finally it increases the levels of both BDNF and NGF. This promotes neuron survival, neuron growth, neurogenesis and synaptogenesis, acting as a potent neuroprotectant agent. And finally it increases brain hemisphere communication, increasing creative thought and reasoning.
A chemical that is seen as a cholinergic. It keeps the brain healthy by helping remove lipofuscins, age spots that show up on the brain, and beta-amyloid, a protein that forms plaques in the brain that are one of the components in alzheimer's. It also increases oxygen consumption in the brain, giving it greater metabolic energy.
A potent choline source that increases the supply of acetylcholine in the brain. Choline also supports cell membranes, synaptic transmission, and functions within the myelin sheath. It also increases HGH, which has some cognitive benefits, and supports lipolysis, supplying more energy to the brain.
An ayurvedic herb that can strengthen the nervous system. It works synergistically with NGF by enhancing NGF induced neurite outgrowth. This causes more dendrites and axons to branch out, increasing synaptogenesis and the speed of electrical impulses in neurons. It also reduces stress, increases immune function, and acts as an antioxidant, protecting neurons from damage.
A natural herb shown to increase NGF.
A mushroom that greatly increases NGF levels. The increase in NGF has a lot of benefits to go along with it. It increases neuron survival rates when faced with physical trauma, toxins, and programmed cell death. It helps repair neurons that have already been damaged. It increases the number of neurites, axons and dendrites, and grows them. All of these mechanisms increase cognition through the stimulation of synaptogenesis and the triggering of neurogenesis. It also has an influence on the myelin sheath, greatly increasing the speed of electrical impulses in neurons, further increasing cognition.
A neurosteroid hormone that is known to trigger neurogenesis and synaptogenesis through a couple of mechanisms. It acts as a NMDA receptor agonist that helps create and reinforce synapses in the brain through a process known as LTP. It is known as the "mother hormone" being the precursor to many hormones including androgens, estrogens, progesterones, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, DHEA, cortisol, and other neuroactive steroids. The cascade of hormones it produces, along with itself, it can induce neurogenesis, increase myelination, speed up neuronal repair, enhance synaptogenesis, boost energy, and halt aging.
An amino acid that produces monoamine neurotransmitters. The main point of it in this stack is its synergy with ALCAR, further increasing energy output. But moreover, it has the ability to aid in mental stamina and motivation. This is due to the increase production in dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine.
A nutrient that makes up a part of RNA. In turn, it increases RNA activity and repairs genetic material. That helps with overall brain function by allowing the brain to produce proteins and enzymes that it needs, helping with functions like LTP. It enhances the neurite outgrowth caused by NGF. It also increases phosphatidylcholine, supporting the cell membrane, synaptic plasticity, production of neurites, the myelin sheath, and the supply of neurotransmitters. Another positive effect being the upregulation of dopamine receptors.
An herbal extract that acts as a vasodilator. It expands blood vessels in the brain specifically, allowing more blood flow to carry oxygen and nutrients to the brain. The increase in usable oxygen enhances mitochondrial activity in the brain; it even focuses blood flow to parts of the brain that may be deprived. It can influence several neurotransmitters including dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, and norepinephrine, balancing their levels and activity. It also acts as an anti-inflammatory, combating neurodegeneration.
An herb whose purpose is to potentiate certain ingredients in the stack. It is highly synergistic with CoQ10 and PQQ. It works in the further aid of the electron transport chain in mitochondria, increases cellular energy and ATP output.
An adaptogenic herb grown in high altitudes. It most importantly increases metabolic energy in a number of ways. It opens up airways in the lungs allowing more oxygen in. It increases oxygen absorption in the lungs. It increases oxygen diffusion into cells, and it increases overall ATP output by donating adenosine to mitochondria. Along with the cognitive benefits of increased oxygen consumption, it also aids the immune system protecting the brain from pathogens. Finally, it aids the adrenal glands regulating both epinephrine and norepinephrine, stabilizing mental stamina and alertness.
A carotenoid that has studies showing it increases voluntary energy output based on behavior.
An amino acid that acts as an antioxidant and a neuroprotectant. It has the ability to clear neurotoxins and keeps brain cells from dying. Along with the increase in acetylcholine, which enhances learning and memories, the clearance of neurotoxins improves neuronal communication and processing speed. It influences dopamine increasing mood and motivation. It also supports myelin to a great extent, aiding in myelinogenesis and repairing the myelin sheath. This allows much faster transmission of electrical impulses along neurons. Plus it increases NGF, allowing the survival of neurons, neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis and a slight amount of neurogenesis. Finally, with synergies with tyrosine and alpha lipoic acid, it increases metabolism of fatty acids, supports mitochondrial functions, and increased ATP output.
A phospholipid that shows up on all cell membranes. It is one of the best phospholipids for cell to cell communication and neuron repair. It therefore enables sound synaptic transmission, this allows synergy with omega-3s. Omega-3s could fit into the fatty acid "slots" in it causing a further boost in regulating synaptic transmission. Plus enhances the cardiovascular benefits experienced by omega-3s. It also can increase the activity of acetylcholine and dopamine, causing increased learning, memory, and motivation.
An antioxidant known for its anti-aging properties. It can increase lifespan and improve cognition by increasing cellular energy and reducing inflammation. It increases cellular energy mainly by acting as a vasodilator by increasing nitric oxide; it also increases insulin sensitivity, further enhancing metabolism. On top of that, it could increase norepinephrine which aids in alertness and mental stamina. Plus it is a serotonin receptor agonist giving it mood elevating properties. Finally it shows synergies with melatonin, for neuroprotection, and curcumin.
A redox agent that is made from vitamin B3. It primarily works in mitochondria; it controls the redox reactions in the Krebs Cycle and the electron transport chain. For this reason it is used to treat conditions in which more metabolic energy in the form of ATP is needed. For healthy individuals it could help increase ATP output in most mitochondrial processes. It has the added bonus of increasing natural dopamine production, increases mood and motivation. Plus it is often used to treat jet lag.
A carbohydrate that acts as a building block to many important compounds in the body. Firstly, it acts as a sugar, supplying direct full to cells. It is also the backbone of both DNA and RNA, allowing its production and replication at a healthy rate. Lastly it is a major component in ATP, allowing more of it to be directly synthesized. This allows proper protein construction, cell division, and cellular energy output.
An antioxidant with somewhat similar functions to Alpha Lipoic Acid. It shows up in the Krebs cycle, allowing it to potentially increase mitochondrial ATP output. It also helps protect mitochondrial DNA. This aid in producing healthy mitochondria from mitochondrial biogenesis. It also protects from oxidative stress produced by mitochondria, reducing brain fog from having increased ATP output.
An antioxidant that acts as a neuroprotant agent. CoQ10 is used to treat many neurodegenerative diseases such as parkinsons and alzheimers. It works as an optional co-enzyme in the electron transport chain in mitochondria. It greatly increases the speed in which electrons are carried between the enzymes that process ATP. Because of the ATP production, it is shown to be very beneficial to cardiovascular health. This aids the brain in both a direct energy increase, and an increase in oxygen and nutrient transport from the cardiovascular system. Plus it shows synergies with PQQ, shilajit, creatine, ALCAR, and alpha-lipoic-acid. PQQ increasing the amount of mitochondria and shilajit further boosting the electron transport chain.
A redox agent that influences mitochondrial activity to a great extent. It signals to mitochondria for the great increase in mitochondrial biogenesis. The increases in mitochondria could greatly increases ATP output. Along with the extra protection to mitochondria, it could find synergy in the improvement of mitochondrial function through the use of CoQ10 and shilajit. With further improvement to the electron transport chain, ATP production could be improved. It has the added bonus of also increasing NGF, giving it the ability to increase cognition in nearly all aspects with ATP production and increased neurite outgrowth with neuron protection.
An antioxidant that has the unique ability to be both water and fat soluble. In that regard it could easily cross the blood brain barrier and deliver its antioxidant benefits and more. It shows up in the Kreb and can induce mitochondrial biogenesis to an extent, increasing ATP output. For these reasons, it is great at synergising with ALCAR because of a the mitochondrial enhancements, plus its added ability of increasing insulin release and insulin sensitivity, allowing ALCAR to aid in metabolising fatty acids. With all of these mechanisms it is excellent at improving cognition and processing speed.
Creatine is an amino acid that affects ATP production. It donates a phosphorus atom to ADP, supplying extra energy to cells. Because of increased metabolic energy, it show efficacy in improving cognition. It also show synergy with alpha-lipoic acid.
EPA and DHA are fatty acids known to increase BDNF levels in the hippocampus. Disregarding water weight, the average human brain is 60% fat. Omega-3s therefore work as a very high quality building block for the brain. It regulates synaptic plasticity allowing neuronal cell transmission and increasing neurotransmitter release. It helps with neurogenesis and neurite outgrowth, neurites being dendrites and axons. It acts as an anti-inflammatory agent and an antioxidant, further protecting neurons. Finally, it shows synergies with phosphatidylserine, uridine, curcumin, green tea, and vitamin E.
Supplementing with folic acid in amounts as little as 300 to 800 mcg per day may increase vitamin B12 requirements. Therefore, it would be prudent for people taking folic acid to supplement with vitamin B12.
Supplementation with vitamin B12, even in relatively small amounts, can increase folic acid requirements, For that reason, people taking vitamin B12 supplements should also consider taking folic acid.
In addition, supplementing with folic acid can mask the laboratory diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency. Failure to identify and treat vitamin B12 deficiency in a timely manner can lead to permanent neurological damage. The relatively small amount of vitamin B12 present in most supplements is not sufficient to prevent or correct vitamin B12 deficiency in people who have pernicious anemia (a condition caused by vitamin B12 malabsorption). For that reason, people should tell their doctor if they are taking folic acid supplements, so that the doctor will order alternative laboratory tests if vitamin B12 deficiency is suspected.
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