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Vitamins

General Health 31 Updated: 2019-03-06 Nenna79
Track amounts

152 Potential Effects from this Stack

Effect OnScaleContributors
Insulin Sensitivity3 Fish Oil, Zinc, Vitamin K, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Chromium
Free Testosterone2 Fish Oil, Zinc, Vitamin E, Vitamin D, Chromium
Blood Flow2 Fish Oil, Vitamin E, Vitamin C
Memory1 Fish Oil, Vitamin E, Chromium
Immunity (aka Immune system)1 Vitamin E
Plasma Vitamin C1 Vitamin C
Lean Mass1 Fish Oil, Vitamin D, Chromium
Leptin1 Fish Oil, Zinc
Photoprotection1 Fish Oil
Interleukin 41 Vitamin E
Infant Birth Weight1 Fish Oil
Sperm Quality1 Vitamin C
Cognition1 Zinc
Skin dryness1 Vitamin A
Skin pigmentation1 Vitamin A
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone1 Iodine
Lipid Peroxidation1 Fish Oil, Zinc, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Chromium
Interferon Gamma1 Vitamin E
Endothelial Function1 Fish Oil
Libido1 Chromium
Cell Adhesion Factors (aka sCAM-11 Fish Oil, Vitamin E
IGF-1 (aka Insulin-like growth factor-1)1 Fish Oil, Zinc
Dysmenorrhea1 Vitamin E
PneumoniaNeutral Zinc
Bleeding TimeNeutral Vitamin E
Aerobic ExerciseNeutral Vitamin C
Protection from SmokingNeutral Vitamin C
Colon cancer riskNeutral Vitamin E
Exercise-Induced Immune SuppressionNeutral Vitamin C
Verbal FluencyNeutral Vitamin E
Fecal WeightNeutral Vitamin K, Vitamin E
TriglyceridesNeutral Vitamin E
Total CholesterolNeutral Vitamin E
EuphoricNeutral Vitamin E
Red Blood Cell CountNeutral Vitamin E
HDL-CNeutral Vitamin E
DNA DamageNeutral Vitamin E
BruisingNeutral Vitamin K
White Blood Cell CountNeutral Vitamin E
Cognitive DeclineNeutral Vitamin E
Risk of StrokeNeutral Vitamin E
T Cell CountNeutral Fish Oil
Anti-Oxidant Enzyme ProfileNeutral Chromium
Anaerobic ExerciseNeutral Chromium
Insulin SecretionNeutral Fish Oil
Muscle Soreness (aka Delayed onset muscle sorenessNeutral Fish Oil
CreatinineNeutral Chromium
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  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Vitamin B12 was added.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose quantity of Vitamin B12 was set to 1006.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose unit of Vitamin B12 was set to 3.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose status of Vitamin B12 was set to Over.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Start date of Vitamin B12 was set to 2019-03-06.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Vitamin D was added.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose quantity of Vitamin D was set to 1400.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose unit of Vitamin D was set to 4.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose status of Vitamin D was set to Empty.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Start date of Vitamin D was set to 2019-03-06.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Vitamin A was added.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose quantity of Vitamin A was set to 2500.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose unit of Vitamin A was set to 4.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose status of Vitamin A was set to Empty.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Start date of Vitamin A was set to 2019-03-06.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Vitamin C was added.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose quantity of Vitamin C was set to 60.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose unit of Vitamin C was set to 1.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose status of Vitamin C was set to Under.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Start date of Vitamin C was set to 2019-03-06.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Vitamin E was added.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose quantity of Vitamin E was set to 22.5.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose unit of Vitamin E was set to 4.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose status of Vitamin E was set to Empty.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Start date of Vitamin E was set to 2019-03-06.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Vitamin K was added.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose quantity of Vitamin K was set to 25.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose unit of Vitamin K was set to 3.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose status of Vitamin K was set to Under.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Start date of Vitamin K was set to 2019-03-06.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Thiamin was added.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose quantity of Thiamin was set to 1.5.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose unit of Thiamin was set to 1.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose status of Thiamin was set to Empty.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Start date of Thiamin was set to 2019-03-06.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Niacin was added.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose quantity of Niacin was set to 20.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose unit of Niacin was set to 1.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose status of Niacin was set to Empty.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Start date of Niacin was set to 2019-03-06.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Folic Acid was added.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose quantity of Folic Acid was set to 1200.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose unit of Folic Acid was set to 3.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose status of Folic Acid was set to Empty.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Start date of Folic Acid was set to 2019-03-06.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Biotin was added.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose quantity of Biotin was set to 300.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose unit of Biotin was set to 3.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose status of Biotin was set to Empty.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Start date of Biotin was set to 2019-03-06.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Pantothenic Acid was added.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose quantity of Pantothenic Acid was set to 10.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose unit of Pantothenic Acid was set to 1.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose status of Pantothenic Acid was set to Empty.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Start date of Pantothenic Acid was set to 2019-03-06.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Calcium was added.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose quantity of Calcium was set to 1200.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose unit of Calcium was set to 1.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose status of Calcium was set to Empty.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Start date of Calcium was set to 2019-03-06.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Iron was added.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose quantity of Iron was set to 18.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose unit of Iron was set to 1.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose status of Iron was set to Empty.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Start date of Iron was set to 2019-03-06.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Iodine was added.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose quantity of Iodine was set to 150.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose unit of Iodine was set to 3.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose status of Iodine was set to Empty.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Start date of Iodine was set to 2019-03-06.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Zinc was added.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose quantity of Zinc was set to 15.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose unit of Zinc was set to 1.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose status of Zinc was set to Recommended.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Start date of Zinc was set to 2019-03-06.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Selenium was added.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose quantity of Selenium was set to 20.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose unit of Selenium was set to 3.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose status of Selenium was set to Empty.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Start date of Selenium was set to 2019-03-06.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Copper was added.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose quantity of Copper was set to 2.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose unit of Copper was set to 1.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose status of Copper was set to Empty.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Start date of Copper was set to 2019-03-06.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Manganese was added.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose quantity of Manganese was set to 2.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose unit of Manganese was set to 1.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose status of Manganese was set to Empty.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Start date of Manganese was set to 2019-03-06.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Fish Oil was added.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose quantity of Fish Oil was set to 1290.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose unit of Fish Oil was set to 1.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose status of Fish Oil was set to Over.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Start date of Fish Oil was set to 2019-03-06.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Folate was added.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose quantity of Folate was set to 1333.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose unit of Folate was set to 3.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Dose status of Folate was set to Empty.
  • 2019-03-06 05:43:11: Start date of Folate was set to 2019-03-06.

Dosage Compound Form Frequency Dates Notes
1333 mcgFolate ,,,,,,2019-03-06
1290 mg ,,,,,,2019-03-06
2 mgManganese ,,,,,,2019-03-06
2 mg ,,,,,,2019-03-06
20 mcg ,,,,,,2019-03-06
15 mg ,,,,,,2019-03-06
150 mcg ,,,,,,2019-03-06
18 mg ,,,,,,2019-03-06
1200 mg ,,,,,,2019-03-06
10 mg ,,,,,,2019-03-06
300 mcg ,,,,,,2019-03-06
1200 mcg ,,,,,,2019-03-06
20 mgNiacin ,,,,,,2019-03-06
1.5 mgThiamin ,,,,,,2019-03-06
25 mcg ,,,,,,2019-03-06
22.5 iu ,,,,,,2019-03-06
60 mg ,,,,,,2019-03-06
2500 iu ,,,,,,2019-03-06
1400 iu ,,,,,,2019-03-06
1006 mcg ,,,,,,2019-03-06
0 mgRiboflavin ,,,,,,2019-03-06
0.00 mg ,,,,,,2019-03-06
0 mcgChromium ,,,,,,2019-03-06

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Vitamins



Potential Interactions
Some, but not all studies have found that iron supplementation decreases copper absorption or copper nutritional status.
Refrences
  • Haschke F, Ziegler EE, Edwards BB, Fomon SJ. Effect of iron fortification of infant formula on trace mineral absorption. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1986;5:768-73.
  • Albers J, Dawson EB, McGanity WJ. Affect of elevated pre-natal iron supplementation on serum copper, zinc, and selenium levels. Am J Clin Nutr 1986;43:673.
  • Yip R,Reeves JD,Lönnerdal B, et al. Does iron supplementation compromise zinc nutrition in healthy infants? The American journal of clinical nutrition. 1985 Oct;42(4):683-7
Intake of large amounts of vitamin C can deplete the body of copper—an essential nutrient. People should be sure to maintain adequate copper intake at higher intakes of vitamin C. Copper is found in many multivitamin-mineral supplements.
Refrences
  • Sandstead HH. Copper bioavailability and requirements. Am J Clin Nutr 1982;35:809-14 [review].
  • Finley EB, Cerklewski FL. Influence of ascorbic acid supplementation on copper status in young adult men. Am J Clin Nutr 1983;37:553-6.
Long-term supplementation with vitamin B6 alone might reduce blood folic acid levels. Therefore, people with elevated blood homocysteine levels should supplement with both folic acid and vitamin B6.
Refrences
  • Mansoor MA, Kristensen O, Hervig T, et al. Plasma total homocysteine response to oral doses of folic acid and pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6) in healthy individuals. Oral doses of vitamin B6 reduce concentrations of serum folate. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1999;59:139-46.
Calcium from food and supplements interferes with heme-iron absorption. Separating these supplements has been advised.
Refrences
  • Hallberg L, Brune M, Erlandsson M, et al. Calcium: effect of different amounts on nonheme- and heme-iron absorption in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:112-9.
  • Hallberg L, Rossander-Hulthén L, Brune M, Gleerup A. Inhibition of haem-iron absorption in man by calcium. Br J Nutr 1992;69:533-40.
Taking vitamin A with iron helps treat iron deficiency, since vitamin A improves the absorption and/or utilization of iron. This interaction has only been shown in a developing country with higher incidence of multiple deficiencies.
Refrences
  • Suharno D, West CE, Muhilal, et al. Supplementation with vitamin A and iron for nutritional anemia in pregnant women in West Java, Indonesia. Lancet 1993;342:1325-8.
  • Semba RD, Muhilal, West KP Jr, et al. Impact of vitamin A supplementation on hematological indicators of iron metabolism and protein status in children. Nutr Res 1992;12:469-78.
Although vitamin C increases iron absorption, the effect is relatively minor.
Refrences
  • Hunt JR, Gallagher SK, Johnson LK. Effect of ascorbic acid on apparent iron absorption by women with low iron stores. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;59:1381-5.
  • Hallberg L, Brune M, Rossander L. The role of vitamin C in iron absorption. Int J Vitam Nutr Res Suppl 1989;30:103-8.
  • Lynch SR, Cook JD. Interaction of vitamin C and iron. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1980;355:32-44.
  • Hallberg L, Brune M, Rossander L. Effect of ascorbic acid on iron absorption from different types of meals. Studies with ascorbic-acid-rich foods and synthetic ascorbic acid given in different amounts with different meals. Hum Nutr Appl Nutr 1986;40:97-113.
Vitamin D’s most important role is maintaining blood levels of calcium. Therefore, many doctors recommend that those supplementing with calcium also supplement with 400–1,200 IU of vitamin D per day.
Refrences
  • Norman AW. Intestinal calcium absorption: a vitamin D-hormone-mediated adaptive response. Am J Clin Nutr 1990;51:290-300.
Some evidence suggests that adding vitamin E to fish oil may prevent fish oil-induced increase in blood sugar levels.
Refrences
  • Luostarinen R, Wallin R, Wibell L, et al. Vitamin E supplementation counteracts the fish oil-induced increase of blood glucose in humans. Nutr Res 1995; 15:953-68.
Vitamin E appears to increase intestinal absorption and tissue uptake of vitamin A. Because of this effect, some doctors have used the combination of vitamin E and vitamin A for various skin conditions that are usually treated with vitamin A alone. The addition of vitamin E improved outcomes, while allowing for lower (and safer) doses of vitamin A.
Refrences
  • Oaks L, Russell R, Jacob RA. Decreased serum vitamin A levels during vitamin E supplementation. Am J Clin Nutr 1978;31:716.
  • Ames SR. Factors affecting absorption, transport, and storage of vitamin A. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 1969 Jul;22(7):934-5
  • Gaby AR. Vitamin A. In Gaby AR. Nutritional Medicine. Concord, NH, www.doctorgaby.com, 2011; chapter 11.
Studies in animals and humans suggest that supplementation with large amounts of either vitamin C or vitamin E increases the requirement for the other nutrient.
Refrences
  • Chen LH. An increase in vitamin E requirement induced by high supplementation of vitamin C in rats. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 1981 Jun;34(6):1036-41
  • Brown KM,Morrice PC,Duthie GG. Erythrocyte vitamin E and plasma ascorbate concentrations in relation to erythrocyte peroxidation in smokers and nonsmokers: dose response to vitamin E supplementation. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 1997 Feb;65(2):496-502
Supplementation with zinc, iron, or the combination has been found to improve vitamin A status among children at high risk for deficiency of the three nutrients. This interaction has only been shown in a developing country with higher incidence of multiple deficiencies.
Refrences
  • Muñoz EC, Rosado JL, Lopez P, et al. Iron and zinc supplementation improves indicators of vitamin A status of Mexican preschoolers. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:789-94.
Zinc competes for absorption with iron.
Refrences
  • Dawson EB, Albers J, McGanity WJ. Serum zinc changes due to iron supplementation in teen-age pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 1990;50:848-52.
  • Crofton RW, Gvozdanovic D, Gvozdanovic S, et al. Inorganic zinc and the intestinal absorption of ferrous iron. Am J Clin Nutr 1989;50:141-4.
Zinc competes for absorption with calcium. A multimineral supplement will help prevent mineral imbalances.
Refrences
  • Argiratos V, Samman S. The effect of calcium carbonate and calcium citrate on the absorption of zinc in healthy female subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 1994;48:198-204.
In one study, administration of 1.9 g per day of calcium for 6 weeks to healthy individuals reduced the uptake of iodine by the thyroid gland. Further studies suggested that this effect of calcium was due to inhibition of gastrointestinal absorption of iodine. To be on the safe side, some doctors recommend that people taking calcium for long periods of time should also take a multimineral supplement that contains iodine.
Refrences
  • Boyle JA, Greig WR, Fulton S, Dalakos TG. Excess dietary calcium and human thyroid function. J Endocrinol 1966;34:531-532.

Supplementing with folic acid in amounts as little as 300 to 800 mcg per day may increase vitamin B12 requirements. Therefore, it would be prudent for people taking folic acid to supplement with vitamin B12.

Supplementation with vitamin B12, even in relatively small amounts, can increase folic acid requirements, For that reason, people taking vitamin B12 supplements should also consider taking folic acid.

In addition, supplementing with folic acid can mask the laboratory diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency. Failure to identify and treat vitamin B12 deficiency in a timely manner can lead to permanent neurological damage. The relatively small amount of vitamin B12 present in most supplements is not sufficient to prevent or correct vitamin B12 deficiency in people who have pernicious anemia (a condition caused by vitamin B12 malabsorption). For that reason, people should tell their doctor if they are taking folic acid supplements, so that the doctor will order alternative laboratory tests if vitamin B12 deficiency is suspected.


Refrences
  • Smith AD. Folic acid fortification: the good, the bad, and the puzzle of vitamin B-12. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85:3-5.
  • Steiner I,Melamed E. Folic acid and the nervous system. Neurology. 1983 Dec;33(12):1634
Vitamin C appears to convert sodium selenite (a form of selenium used for supplementation) to elemental selenium, making it unavailable for absorption. This interaction occurred when 1 g of vitamin C was taken with sodium selenite on an empty stomach, but not when these nutrients were taken together with a meal. Vitamin C does not appear to interact with selenomethionine, another commonly used form of supplemental selenium.
Refrences
  • Robinson MF,Thomson CD,Huemmer PK. Effect of a megadose of ascorbic acid, a meal and orange juice on the absorption of selenium as sodium selenite. The New Zealand medical journal. 1985 Aug;98(784):627-9
  • Ip C. Interaction of vitamin C and selenium supplementation in the modification of mammary carcinogenesis in rats. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1986 Jul;77(1):299-303
Zinc competes for absorption with copper  and inhibits copper absorption. Copper deficiency can result in anemia, lower levels of HDL (“good”) cholesterol, neurological disorders, and cardiac arrhythmias. Copper intake should be increased if zinc supplementation continues for more than a few days (except for people with Wilson’s disease). Some sources recommend a 10:1 ratio of zinc to copper. Evidence suggests that no more that 2 mg of copper per day is needed to prevent zinc-induced copper deficiency. Many zinc supplements include copper in the formulation to prevent zinc-induced copper deficiency. Zinc-induced copper deficiency has been reported to cause reversible anemia and suppression of bone marrow. In addition, there are case reports of neurologic abnormalities due to copper deficiency occurring in people who had been using large amounts of certain widely available denture creams that contained high concentrations of zinc.
Refrences
  • Dawson EB, Albers J, McGanity WJ. Serum zinc changes due to iron supplementation in teen-age pregnancy. Am J Clin Nutr 1990;50:848-52.
  • Broun ER. Greist A, Tricot G, Hoffman R. Excessive zinc ingestion. A reversible cause of sideroblastic anemia and bone marrow depression. JAMA 1990;264:1441-3.
  • Reiser S, Powell A, Yang CY, Canary JJ. Effect of copper intake on blood cholesterol and its lipoprotein distribution in men. Nutr Rep Int 1987;36:641-9.
  • Sandstead HH. Requirements and toxicity of essential trace elements, illustrated by zinc and copper. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61(suppl):621S-24S [review].
  • Fischer PWF, Giroux A, Labbe MR. Effect of zinc supplementation on copper status in adult man. Am J Clin Nutr 1984;40:743-6.
  • Nations SP, Boyer PJ, Love LA, et al. Denture cream. An unusual source of excess zinc, leading to hypocupremia and neurologic disease. Neurology 2008;71:639-43.

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