|Insulin Sensitivity||4||Zinc, Magnesium, AcetylCarnitine, Conjugated Linoleic Acid, Chromium, Whey Protein, Garlic|
|Lean Mass||3||Yohimbine, AcetylCarnitine, Conjugated Linoleic Acid, Chromium, Whey Protein|
|Anaerobic Exercise||2||AcetylCarnitine, Chromium, Eleutherococcus senticosus|
|Sperm Quality||1||AcetylCarnitine, Astaxanthin|
|Cortisol||1||Yohimbine, Magnesium, Gamma Oryzanol, Garlic|
|Muscle Protein Synthesis||1||Whey Protein|
|Triglycerides||1||Magnesium, AcetylCarnitine, Conjugated Linoleic Acid, Astaxanthin|
|Muscle Carnitine Content||1||AcetylCarnitine|
|Treatment of Hepatic Encephalopathy||1||AcetylCarnitine|
|Free Testosterone||1||Zinc, Magnesium, AcetylCarnitine, Gamma Oryzanol, Chromium, Astaxanthin|
|Leptin||1||Zinc, Conjugated Linoleic Acid, Garlic|
|IGF-1 (aka Insulin-like growth factor-1)||1||Zinc, Magnesium, Conjugated Linoleic Acid, Whey Protein|
|Anti-Oxidant Enzyme Profile||Neutral||Chromium|
|Adiponectin||Neutral||Conjugated Linoleic Acid|
|Total Cholesterol||Neutral||AcetylCarnitine, Astaxanthin|
|Growth Hormone||Neutral||Gamma Oryzanol|
|Liver Enzymes||Neutral||Conjugated Linoleic Acid, Chromium|
|Metabolic Rate||Neutral||Conjugated Linoleic Acid|
|TNF-Alpha (aka TNF-α||Neutral||Conjugated Linoleic Acid|
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Exercise depletes zinc, and severe zinc deficiency can compromise muscle function. One trial found that zinc improved muscle strength, and another study of athletes with low zinc levels found that zinc improved red blood cell flexibility during exercise, which could benefit blood flow to the muscles.
Yohimbine has shown an ability to stimulate the nervous system, promote the release of fat from fat cells, and affect the cardiovascular system.
B-complex vitamins are needed to produce energy from carbohydrates. Exercisers may have slightly increased requirements for some of the B vitamins, including vitamins B2, B6, and B5, athletic performance can suffer if these slightly increased needs are not met.
Some athletes believe rice protein may also improve blood flow to muscle to enhance growth and repair. However, no research has investigated the effects of rice protein on athletic performance.
Ribose is a type of sugar used by the body to make the energy-containing substance adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which gets depleted during intense exercise. Reports have suggested that taking ribose might increase power during short, intense bouts of exercise.
Pea protein may help build muscle and help athletes recover after exercise.
Ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG) is believed to facilitate muscle growth by enhancing the body's release of anabolic hormones, but this is based on effects seen in hospitalized and elderly people, not published research.
Preliminary studies have suggested that octacosanol improves endurance, reaction time, and other measures of exercise capacity.
The developers of methoxyisoflavone, a member of the flavonoid family, claim that it builds bone and muscle without the side effects seen with hormones. One trial found that athletes who took it reduced their body fat more significantly than those taking placebo.
Medium-chain triglycerides contain a class of fatty acids that are more rapidly absorbed and burned as energy than other fats. For this reason, athletes have been interested in their use, especially during prolonged endurance exercise.
Magnesium deficiency can reduce exercise performance and contribute to muscle cramps. Studies suggest that taking magnesium might improve performance, although possibly only for those who are deficient or who are not highly trained athletes.
L-carnitine has been popular as a potential aid in improving athletic performance because of its role in converting fat to energy. Some studies have found that it improves certain measures of muscle physiology.
Theoretical considerations and animal studies suggest hemp protein may improve stamina and help athletes recover after exertion.
Gamma oryzanol is a mixture of sterols and ferulic acid esters. One trial using ferulic acid in trained weight lifters found significantly more weight gain and increased strength compared with placebo.
Egg protein may help build muscle and improve post-exercise recovery in athletes.
Deer antler base has a long history of use in Chinese medicine, and deer antler extract is being studied to determine its potential as a way to improve athletic performance.
In one trial a combination of zinc and copper significantly reduced evidence of post-exercise free radical activity.
Conjugated linoleic acid may play a role in reducing body fat. Research has reported that CLA supplementation produces minor gains in muscle size and strength in weight-training men.
Chromium may play a role in altering body composition. Research has suggested that chromium picolinate might increase fat loss and lean muscle tissue gain when used with a weight-training program.
Capsaicin, a constituent of cayenne, has been shown to reduce pain caused by osteoarthritis and provide relief from chronic low back pain.
Asian ginseng has been associated with improved athletic performance, though findings have been inconsistent. Its cousin, American ginseng, was found ineffective at improving endurance exercise performance in untrained people after one week. It is possible that different amounts and durations might affect results.
AKG is used by cells during growth and is especially important in healing muscle tissue. It has been speculated that AKG supplements might help improve strength or muscle-mass gains by weight lifters.
20 grams daily up to 1.2 grams of per 2.2 of pounds body weight per day. Animal studies suggest that whey protein can increase gains in lean body mass resulting from exercise. One study found that people taking whey protein improved their performance on a test of short-term intense cycling exercise.
100 grams of a combination of dihydroxyacetone and pyruvate. One group of researchers has reported that a combination of dihydroxyacetone and pyruvate enhanced the endurance of certain muscles.
Fermented milk containing 6.5 billion live Lactobacillus casei Shirota organisms, twice a day for 16 weeks. In a double-blind trial, supplementation with a probiotic preparation reduced the frequency of upper respiratory tract infections in training athletes during the winter.
4 gram three times per day. It has been speculated that AAKG may increase production of nitric oxide, a substance known to enhance blood flow. Studies show, AAKG improved measures of strength and short-term power performance in weight lifters.
Eleuthero supplementation may improve athletic performance, according to preliminary research. The herb strengthens the immune system and thus might reduce the risk of post-exercise infection.
Strenuous physical activity lowers blood levels of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). A few studies have reported that CoQ10 supplementation benefitted some trained athletes.
Casein protein is more slowly digested than other animal proteins, resulting in a slower, prolonged rise in blood levels of amino acids, so some speculate that it may better support protein synthesis by the body compared with proteins like whey protein that are more rapidly digested.
4 mg per day. Astaxanthin is a member of the carotenoid family with strong antioxidant properties that might protect against the oxidative stress of exercise.
15 to 20 grams daily for five or six days. Taking this supplement for five or six days may improve performance of high-intensity, short-duration exercise (like sprinting) or sports with alternating low- and high-intensity efforts.
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