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Atherosclerosis Stack

General Health 499 SupplementDoctor
Atherosclerosis is a major contributory factor in cerebrovascular disease or stroke. It is characterized by the formation of plaques on the arterial walls. There would also be an accumulation of lipids, fibrin, complex carbohydrates, and calcium deposits that would then lead to progressive narrowing of blood vessels. These atherosclerotic plaques typically interrupt the bifurcations, constrictions, dilation, or angulations of arteries. Get your blood flowing freely and protect your arteries from hardening with a few healthy habits. According to research or other evidence, the following self-care steps may be helpful.

168 Potential Effects from this Stack

Effect OnScaleContributors
Blood Flow3 Vitamin E, Ginkgo biloba, Vitamin C, Fish Oil
Memory3 Vitamin E, Ginkgo biloba, Ginger, Fish Oil
Interleukin 41 Vitamin E
Cognition1 Resveratrol, Ginkgo biloba
Dysmenorrhea1 Vitamin E
Total Cholesterol1 Vitamin E, Trimethylglycine
Euphoric1 Vitamin E, Ginkgo biloba
Interferon Gamma1 Vitamin E
Calmness1 Ginkgo biloba
Endothelial Function1 Fish Oil
Photoprotection1 Fish Oil
Infant Birth Weight1 Fish Oil
Plasma Vitamin C1 Vitamin C
Sperm Quality1 Vitamin C
Ocular Blood Flow1 Ginkgo biloba
Rate of Gastric Emptying1 Ginger
Lipid Peroxidation1 Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Fish Oil
Sleep Quality1 Quercetin, Ginkgo biloba
Immunity (aka Immune system)1 Vitamin E
Cell Adhesion Factors (aka sCAM-11 Vitamin E, Fish Oil
LDL-C1 Vitamin E, Trimethylglycine
Insulin Sensitivity1 Vitamin E, Resveratrol, Vitamin C, Fish Oil, Garlic
Lean MassNeutral Trimethylglycine, Fish Oil
Serum FolateNeutral Trimethylglycine
Muscular EnduranceNeutral Trimethylglycine
Aerobic ExerciseNeutral Vitamin C
Exercise-Induced Immune SuppressionNeutral Vitamin C
Lactate ProductionNeutral Trimethylglycine
DNA DamageNeutral Vitamin E
LibidoNeutral Ginkgo biloba
Intraocular Pressure (aka IOP)Neutral Ginkgo biloba
Stroke Recovery RateNeutral Ginkgo biloba
Working MemoryNeutral Ginkgo biloba
Fat MassNeutral Trimethylglycine, Vitamin C, Fish Oil
Protection from SmokingNeutral Vitamin C
Growth HormoneNeutral Trimethylglycine
C-Reactive ProteinNeutral Vitamin E
T Cell CountNeutral Fish Oil
Pre-Eclampsia RiskNeutral Fish Oil
B cell countNeutral Fish Oil
Blood GlucoseNeutral Vitamin E, Trimethylglycine
Symptoms of Peripheral Vascular DiseaseNeutral Garlic
Postpartum DepressionNeutral Fish Oil
Natural Killer Cell Content (aka NK cellNeutral Fish Oil
IGF-1 (aka Insulin-like growth factor-1)Neutral Fish Oil
DepressionNeutral Ginkgo biloba, Vitamin C, Fish Oil
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Dosage Compound Form Frequency Dates Notes
100 iu ,,,,,,
100 to 200 IU daily. Vitamin E is an antioxidant that protects LDL cholesterol from oxidative damage and has been linked to heart disease prevention. Many doctors recommend supplementing with vitamin E to lower the risk of atherosclerosis and heart attacks.
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Blood levels of the amino acid homocysteine have been linked to atherosclerosis and heart disease in most research. Taking vitamin B6 may help lower homocysteine levels.
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Blood levels of the amino acid homocysteine have been linked to atherosclerosis and heart disease in most research. Taking vitamin B12 may help lower homocysteine levels.
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Turmeric's active compound curcumin has shown potent anti-platelet activity in preliminary studies.
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Shelled hemp seed or its oil may theoretically be useful for people with atherosclerosis due to its essential fatty acid content.
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Rosemary is traditionally reputed to have a positive effect on atherosclerosis.
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Though not yet proven in clinical research, animal studies suggest that rice protein based diets result in less buildup of atherosclerotic plaque compared with animal protein based diets.
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Studies have found that in moderation red wine, which contains resveratrol, lowers risk of death from heart disease. Its antioxidant activity and effect on platelets leads some researchers to believe that it is the protective agent in red wine.
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Quercetin, a flavonoid, protects LDL cholesterol from damage.
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Peony has been shown to prevent platelet aggregation.
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The carotenoid lycopene, present in high amounts in tomatoes, may help prevent atherosclerosis.
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The herb Ginkgo biloba may reduce atherosclerosis risk by stopping platelets from sticking together too much. It also increases blood circulation to the brain, arms, and legs.
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Supplementing with ginger may reduce platelet stickiness.
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Taking evening primrose oil has been shown to lower cholesterol in double-blind research. Lowering cholesterol levels should in turn reduce the risk of atherosclerosis.
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Preliminary research shows that chondroitin sulfate may prevent atherosclerosis and may also prevent heart attacks in people who already have atherosclerosis.
0.00 ,,,,,,
Bilberry has been shown to prevent platelet aggregation.
0.00 ,,,,,,
For the few cases in which vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folic acid fail to normalize homocysteine, adding betaine (trimethylglycine) may be effective. Regular (anhydrous) betaine is preferable to betaine hydrochloride for most people (check with a doctor).
250 mg ,,,,,,
250 mg twice per day. Supplementing with vitamin C may help reverse the progression of atherosclerosis and protect against heart disease.
2000 mgVitamin B3 (Niacin) ,,,,,,
2,000 mg per day (only under a doctor's supervision). In a preliminary trial, doctor-supervised supplementation with extended-release niacin in combination with a cholesterol-lowering statin drug appeared to reverse atherosclerosis of the carotid arteries (the arteries that supply blood to the brain).
200 mg ,,,,,,
200 mg daily. Tocotrienols are potent antioxidants that may help slow down the build-up of plaque in the arteries.
100 mcg ,,,,,,
100 mcg daily. Some doctors recommend that people with atherosclerosis supplement with selenium, which has been shown in one study to help reduce the risk of death from heart disease.
5 g ,,,,,,
5 grams three times per day. Horny goat weed has historically been used in people with symptoms caused by hardening of the arteries. Preliminary research has suggested that it may improve markers of artery health in seniors.
0.00 ,,,,,,
Blood levels of an amino acid called homocysteine have been linked to atherosclerosis and heart disease in most research. Taking folic acid may help lower homocysteine levels.
3 g ,,,,,,
3 to 6 grams fish oil daily, containing at least 30% omega-3 fatty acids. Fish oil may reduce risk factors for atherosclerosis and heart disease. One trial showed that people who took fish oil had a slowing of the progression of their arterial plaque and had a decrease in cardiovascular events such as heart attack and stroke.
0.00 ,,,,,,
. Though the effect has not been studied with supplements, an analysis of several controlled trials found that replacing saturated fats in the diet with omega-6 fats reduces the risk of coronary heart disease.
900 mgGarlic ,,,,,,
900 mg daily of a powder standardized for 0.6% allicin. Garlic has been shown to slow down the process of the arteries hardening. Aged garlic extract has been shown to prevent oxidation of LDL ("bad") cholesterol, a significant factor in atherosclerosis development.

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Atherosclerosis Stack



Potential Interactions
Long-term supplementation with vitamin B6 alone might reduce blood folic acid levels. Therefore, people with elevated blood homocysteine levels should supplement with both folic acid and vitamin B6.
Refrences
  • Mansoor MA, Kristensen O, Hervig T, et al. Plasma total homocysteine response to oral doses of folic acid and pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B6) in healthy individuals. Oral doses of vitamin B6 reduce concentrations of serum folate. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1999;59:139-46.
Since flavonoids help protect and enhance vitamin C, quercetin is often taken with vitamin C.
Refrences
  • Clemetson CA, Andersen L. Plant polyphenols as antioxidants for ascorbic acid. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1966;136:341-76.
  • Chen LH. An increase in vitamin E requirement induced by high supplementation of vitamin C in rats. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 1981 Jun;34(6):1036-41
Other nutrients are needed by the body, along with EPO, to make PGE1. Consequently, some experts suggest that magnesium, zinc, vitamin C, niacin, and vitamin B6 should be taken along with EPO.
Refrences
  • Horrobin DF. The importance of gamma-linolenic acid and prostaglandin E1 in human nutrition and medicine. J Holistic Med 1981;3:118-39.
Other nutrients are needed by the body, along with EPO, to make PGE1. Consequently, some experts suggest that magnesium, zinc, vitamin C, niacin, and vitamin B6 should be taken along with EPO.
Refrences
  • Horrobin DF. The importance of gamma-linolenic acid and prostaglandin E1 in human nutrition and medicine. J Holistic Med 1981;3:118-39.
Some evidence suggests that adding vitamin E to fish oil may prevent fish oil-induced increase in blood sugar levels.
Refrences
  • Luostarinen R, Wallin R, Wibell L, et al. Vitamin E supplementation counteracts the fish oil-induced increase of blood glucose in humans. Nutr Res 1995; 15:953-68.
Studies in animals and humans suggest that supplementation with large amounts of either vitamin C or vitamin E increases the requirement for the other nutrient.
Refrences
  • Chen LH. An increase in vitamin E requirement induced by high supplementation of vitamin C in rats. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 1981 Jun;34(6):1036-41
  • Brown KM,Morrice PC,Duthie GG. Erythrocyte vitamin E and plasma ascorbate concentrations in relation to erythrocyte peroxidation in smokers and nonsmokers: dose response to vitamin E supplementation. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 1997 Feb;65(2):496-502
A diet high in polyunsaturated fats such as the omega-6 fatty acids increases vitamin E requirements. Based on available evidence, at least 0.6 mg (0.9 IU) of vitamin E is needed for every gram of polyunsaturated fat consumed.
Refrences
  • Valk EE, Hornstra G. Relationship between vitamin E requirement and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake in man: a review. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2000;70:31-42.
Supplementing with polyunsaturated fatty acids (which are present in evening primrose oil) increases vitamin E requirements. Therefore, people taking evening primrose oil may need additional vitamin E.
Refrences
  • Horwitt MK. Status of human requirements for vitamin E. Am J Clin Nutr 1974;27:1182-93.

Supplementing with folic acid in amounts as little as 300 to 800 mcg per day may increase vitamin B12 requirements. Therefore, it would be prudent for people taking folic acid to supplement with vitamin B12.

Supplementation with vitamin B12, even in relatively small amounts, can increase folic acid requirements, For that reason, people taking vitamin B12 supplements should also consider taking folic acid.

In addition, supplementing with folic acid can mask the laboratory diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency. Failure to identify and treat vitamin B12 deficiency in a timely manner can lead to permanent neurological damage. The relatively small amount of vitamin B12 present in most supplements is not sufficient to prevent or correct vitamin B12 deficiency in people who have pernicious anemia (a condition caused by vitamin B12 malabsorption). For that reason, people should tell their doctor if they are taking folic acid supplements, so that the doctor will order alternative laboratory tests if vitamin B12 deficiency is suspected.


Refrences
  • Smith AD. Folic acid fortification: the good, the bad, and the puzzle of vitamin B-12. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;85:3-5.
  • Steiner I,Melamed E. Folic acid and the nervous system. Neurology. 1983 Dec;33(12):1634
Vitamin C appears to convert sodium selenite (a form of selenium used for supplementation) to elemental selenium, making it unavailable for absorption. This interaction occurred when 1 g of vitamin C was taken with sodium selenite on an empty stomach, but not when these nutrients were taken together with a meal. Vitamin C does not appear to interact with selenomethionine, another commonly used form of supplemental selenium.
Refrences
  • Robinson MF,Thomson CD,Huemmer PK. Effect of a megadose of ascorbic acid, a meal and orange juice on the absorption of selenium as sodium selenite. The New Zealand medical journal. 1985 Aug;98(784):627-9
  • Ip C. Interaction of vitamin C and selenium supplementation in the modification of mammary carcinogenesis in rats. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1986 Jul;77(1):299-303

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