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3 Essential Vitamins to Start Using For Your Brain

Getting all the necessary nutrients and vitamins that your brain needs entirely from your diet is a tough ask.

Unavoidable factors like stress, sugar, caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, medications, and poor digestion increase your need for vitamins.

The vitamins required can make you happier and help you live longer and although all vitamins are required for best health and brain function, there are a few which do more benefit relative to the rest.

Vitamin C: The Most Common Vitamin

Vitamin C is arguably the most popular vitamin supplement thanks to it being completely safe, inexpensive and ability to widely prevent and minimize the risk of allergies or the common cold.

It is a natural antihistamine used by millions of people to reduce allergy symptoms and numerous studies have concluded that it can help prevent both heart disease and even cancer.

However, its benefits as the most important vitamin for the brain aren’t common knowledge. Continue reading to find out the many reasons why vitamin C ranks above other vitamins in the role it plays for your brain.

Production of Neurotransmitters

The brain has approximately 100 billion neurons which communicate with each other via chemicals found in the brain called neurotransmitters.

Vitamin C is crucial to produce neurotransmitters since they impact your ability to focus, concentrate, and remember things. The same also control your mood, cravings, addictions, and sleep.

Improving Your Overall Mood

Vitamin C can ease your mind and is particularly helpful in depressing times. According to a specific study, subjects given vitamin C reported feeling happier, often within as little as one week.

Since vitamin C increases the neurotransmitter Serotonin, which is the “happy molecule,” it may act as a natural antidepressant.

Boosting Intelligence

Vitamin C supplements can easily improve your IQ, memory and lots of other mental functions. Students with the highest blood levels of vitamin C did better on memory tests, but higher amounts of vitamin C can boost brain function regardless of age.

Mitigating Risk of Brain Degeneration

Vitamin C protects against age-related brain degeneration or mental decline, including problems like dementia, Alzheimer’s disease and strokes. 2,000 mg is the recommended daily dosage for vitamin C.

Preventing Free Radical Damage

The brain is susceptible to free radical damage because of its high oxygen usage. Vitamin C is one of the most potent antioxidant vitamins and its antioxidant power can be enhanced further when taken in addition to vitamin E since when taken together, these vitamins have a special synergistic effect.

Improving Blood Circulation

By facilitating the building of collagen that keeps arteries flexible, vitamin C improves blood flow to your brain. This increases flow of oxygen and nutrients to your brain.

Detoxifying Heavy Metals

The brain accumulates toxic heavy metals. For example, Mercury gets into our systems from seafood and from amalgam dental fillings. Aluminum has long been suspected of contributing to Alzheimer’s and easily leeches from aluminum cookware.

Vitamin C acts as an amazing detoxifier that readily crosses the blood-brain barrier to remove these metals from the brain.

Protecting from Excessive Amounts of Glutamate

Glutamate is a naturally occurring brain chemical but too much glutamate contributes to brain health issues like epilepsy and depression. However, Vitamin C protects neuroreceptors that act as a brake, controlling the release of Glutamate.

Vitamin C: Food Sources

When most people think of a vitamin for the mind, vitamin C usually makes them think of oranges or orange juice (if you are from the south!). However, oranges aren’t the only source of vitamin C.

Fruits with the highest amounts of vitamin C include:

  • cantaloupe
  • citrus fruits (such as oranges, grapefruits, lemons, and limes)
  • kiwi fruit
  • mango
  • papaya
  • pineapple
  • strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, cranberries
  • watermelon

Vegetables that include vitamin C are:

  • cruciferous vegetables (such as broccoli, brussels sprouts, cauliflower)
  • bell peppers (all colors)
  • green leafy vegetables
  • sweet and white potatoes
  • tomatoes
  • winter squash

 

When Should You Consider Supplements?

It is widely recommended that you take 75 mg of vitamin C per day if you are a woman and 90 mg per day for men on the super low end. Most supplement companies sell it at 1000mg or 500mg nowadays.

However, these numbers are extremely poor for good health since it does not target optimal health but only the minimum amount your body should consume.

Here are some questions to consider:

  1. How much raw produce do you eat every day?
  2. Do you smoke? Smokers need more vitamin C.
  3. Are you stressed a lot? Stress increases your need for vitamin C.

Your body uses vitamin C to suppress formation of the stress hormone Cortisol. There is a lot of debate over the best type of vitamin C to take as a supplement but Ascorbic acid seems to be the most potent form with a reasonable therapeutic daily dose being 1000 mg.

 

vitamin d for brain healthVitamin D: Are you getting enough sunshine?

Unlike most vitamins, vitamin D is mainly obtained by us from the sun itself and not from the food we eat. It is created when our body is exposed to the sunlight. Vitamin D has been found to be protective against cancer, diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, and even osteoporosis.

A long lasting and healthy brain

Vitamin D has profound effects on the brain during all stages of life. Continuing to get adequate vitamin D throughout adult life can ward off cognitive decline, dementia, and Alzheimer’s. In addition, vitamin D can lift your mood, improve memory, and increase problem-solving ability. Inadequate levels contribute to the depression many people feel in the winter.

Getting all your vitamin D from food is impossible

There are only few foods that contain vitamin D3, the best utilized form and the best food source by far is cod liver oil or fish oil with salmon, mackerel, tuna, and sardines trailing far behind.

This means that most of the vitamin D needs to be gotten from either sunlight or from supplements if you live in a cold place that rarely gets much sun.

Here are some tips to bear in mind regarding vitamin D:

  • If you wear sunscreen, you won’t manufacture much, if any, vitamin D.
  • If you live in the US, draw a line from San Francisco to Richmond.
  • If you live north of this line, the sun’s rays are too weak to trigger vitamin D production except during the summer.
  • According to Cancer Council Australia it’s only when the UV index is greater than 3 that the needed UVB wavelengths are present in sufficient amounts to produce vitamin D.
  • Light-skinned people from very northern areas evolved to utilize sunshine more efficiently.

If you have dark skin, you will need even more sun exposure to keep your vitamin D levels up.

Vitamin D Supplements are a necessity

Most people in North America and Europe need to take supplemental vitamin D because the climate isn’t entirely dependable. When choosing one, however, be sure to buy from a reputable company you can trust.

You can see your doctor or purchase a vitamin D test online.

 

Vitamin B – Complex Vitamins

B vitamins are generally called the “happy vitamins” or “anti-stress vitamins” because they can improve energy levels and increase your tolerance to stress. The B vitamins can ward off brain aging, reduce depression, and  can even help you live longer.

An important role of B vitamins for brain health is in the production of the neurotransmitters Serotonin, Dopamine, and GABA.

Imbalances of these important brain chemicals can wreak havoc with your state of mind.

If you don’t have enough Serotonin, you may suffer from anxiety, insomnia, low self-esteem, negative thoughts, OCD, and seasonal affective disorder.

Without adequate GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), you may find yourself easily stressed, over stimulated and overwhelmed.

Dopamine helps you stay focused and attentive.

Taking B vitamins can vastly improve your neurotransmitter balance and your mental well-being.

B Vitamins Which Prevent Mental Decline?

All the B complex vitamins are vital for your overall health but three of them — B6, B12, and folic acid (B9) — are simply critical for brain health. These vitamins work together to prevent mental decline, dementia, and Alzheimer’s disease by reducing levels of homocysteine, a toxic amino acid that’s a natural byproduct of digestion.

B-12 Vitamin Deficiency

If your memory is rather poor or you feel like you are constantly experiencing brain fog, you may or may not have a vitamin B12 deficiency.

Two high risk groups for said deficiency are seniors, who often have poor absorption, and vegetarians. Animal foods are the only dependable sources of vitamin B12 and as a result, over 90% of vegans are B12 deficient.

Lack of vitamin B 12 can lead to a wide spectrum of mental disorders including dementia, depression, and even schizophrenia and can ultimately cause brain atrophy and shrinkage.

If you have begun to get worried, vitamin B12 supplements can bring your levels back to normal quickly so you can rest easy!

What are Vitamin B: Food Sources?

Folic acid is found in green leafy vegetables, legumes, fruit, eggs, and organ meats. However, the best food sources of vitamin B6 are fish, poultry, bananas, carrots, spinach, peas, and potatoes while Vitamin B12 can be found in all animal products including meat, fish, eggs, and dairy.

When Should You Consider Supplements?

The B complex vitamins are more commonly known as the anti-stress vitamins so supplements for these can be taken to relax your mind. If you are a senior or a vegetarian, or you have any doubt that you might have a vitamin B12 deficiency, a B12 supplement can readily address the problem.

It is recommended that you take all the B vitamins together in a balanced B complex formula.

 

What Should You Do Now?

Start by taking a high-quality multivitamin which itself can improve brain function and memory.

We recommend you do your homework on various kinds of supplement brands and study their labels before you reach for your wallets. There are a lot of vitamins for the brain that will help energize and strengthen your brain and taking supplements for these easily provide nutrition to your brain without you having to worry about any deficiencies. You can consider a ‘brain multivitamin (all in one)’ called MaxSynapse or Lumonol as well.

The Best Vitamins for Memory That You Need To Be Using!

Top Memory-boosting Vitamins and Supplements

If you have realized that your memory is beginning to get worse, age isn’t the only thing to blame!

It’s very likely that your brain simply hasn’t been getting the nutrients it needs to remember everything and successfully perform other functions in your body. Being deficient in vitamins hinders your memory, focus, attention span and clarity.

This article will help explain which vitamins are crucial for your brain and list all key vitamins for memory.

If you’ve been asking yourself, “what vitamins are good for memory?” you have come to the right place.

Tackling Memory Loss with B Complex Vitamins

The B vitamins prevent memory loss, counter brain aging, reduce depression, and even help you live longer.

B vitamins are often called “happy vitamins” or “anti-stress vitamins”. Your mood and reduce stress levels are positively influenced by Vitamin B.

B vitamins are involved in the production of the neurotransmitters which are vital for a healthy mind. If you have a Serotonin deficiency, you could be suffering from anxiety, insomnia, low self-esteem, negative thoughts, OCD, and even SAD (seasonal affective disorder).

To prohibit being stressed or overwhelmed make sure you have sufficient levels of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid). The stress hormone Dopamine helps you stay focused. A sign that you need more Dopamine is relying on caffeine, sugar, and chocolate to get you through the day.

Taking B complex vitamins can improve your neurotransmitter balance and your overall well-being. A study researched and found that taking vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid together reduces brain atrophy, improves overall brain function, and dramatically reduces brain shrinkage in the part of the brain that is most affected in Alzheimer’s.

Common Vitamin B12 deficiencies

People who suffer from brain fog or memory loss might be deficient in Vitamin B12 which is arguably one of the best vitamins for memory. Roughly 40% of adults in the US are deficient. This deficiency can lead to a wide range of mental disorders like dementia, depression, and even Schizophrenia.

In a worst case scenario, it can also cause brain atrophy and shrinkage which is as scary as it sounds.

Seniors who often have poor absorption are likely suffering from a vitamin B12 deficiency. Vegetarians are deficient in B12 as it’s found in animal products. 90% of vegans are also deficient.

Vitamin B12 supplements can easily bring your levels back to normal quickly. Find a supplement with the best-absorbed forms of vitamin B12, Methylcobalamin or Adenosylcobalamin. We advise that you take all the B vitamins together in a balanced B complex formula since these occur together in nature.

Food sources that are abundant in B Vitamins for memory

Green leafy vegetables, legumes, fruit, eggs, fish, poultry, bananas, carrots, spinach, peas, and potatoes.

All animal products including meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and dairy contain Vitamin B12.

Vitamin C as a popular antidepressant

Vitamin C is widely taken to prevent and reduce the effects of common cold and many allergies. The effects on the brain are less known and few people take it as a memory vitamin.

By increasing the neurotransmitter Serotonin, vitamin C acts as a natural antidepressant. This vitamin protects against age-related mental decline, including dementia and Alzheimer’s disease and stroke.

The brain is susceptible to free radical damage because of high oxygen usage, vitamin C is used as one of the most potent antioxidant vitamins, neutralizing the damage.

Stacked with Vitamin E, Vitamin C becomes even more effective. Vitamin C acts as a powerful detoxifier that crosses the blood-brain barrier to remove heavy metals like lead, mercury, and aluminum from the brain so smokers need more vitamin C.

Our body uses vitamin C to suppress formation of the stress hormone Cortisol. Even if you are eating the recommended 9 servings of fruit and vegetables every day, it is a supplement that you almost certainly would benefit from.

Food sources that are abundant in Vitamin C

Cantaloupe, all citrus fruits, berries of all kinds, pineapple, peppers of all kinds, tomatoes, white and sweet potatoes, cruciferous vegetables, green leafy vegetables, winter squash.

 

Vitamin D for memory: Here is your sunshine

Usually, we get our vitamin D from the sunlight without having to eat specific food to get it.

Vitamin D has amazing effects on the brain during all stages of our life from prenatal development through our senior years.

Getting adequate vitamin D throughout adult life can counter cognitive decline, dementia, and Alzheimer’s. It can also help improve memory, mood and increase problem-solving abilities.

Inadequate levels of Vitamin D lead to the depression many people feel in the winter. The usual rule of thumb is “20 minutes of sun twice a week” on a large surface area of your body, such as arms or legs, for adequate vitamin D formation.

However, use of sunscreen, the summer season, your latitude, natural skin color, and current UV index affect how efficiently your skin manufactures vitamin D.

Vitamin D in the Northern Hemisphere

In the USA, if you live north of San Francisco, St. Louis, or Richmond, the sun’s rays are too weak to trigger vitamin D production most of the year. The same goes for Canada and Alaska.

Up to 77% of Americans don’t get enough vitamin D. The bottom line is that most people in North America and Europe need to take supplemental vitamin D to enjoy its benefits and provide their brain with all necessary nutrients.

Finding a reputable supplement store is key to getting a quality product. The only way to know for sure if you need vitamin D is to have a blood test to check your 25-hydroxy level. You can see a doctor or buy an online vitamin D test from a quality online lab or the Vitamin D Council.

However even this isnt the perfect way to test Vitamin D amounts as your bones absorb Vitamin D and the whole idea on enough Vitamin D is heavily controversial where some researchers claim up to 10,000 IU is a good amount where others say 1-3,000 IU daily should suffice.

Food sources that are abundant in Vitamin D

Cod liver oil, salmon, mackerel, tuna, sardines, mushrooms, fortified milk.

Vitamin E keeps your mind and soul healthy

Vitamin E is actually a group of eight naturally occurring forms of the same vitamin and the most common form found in many supplements is d-alpha tocopherol.

These supplements are usually taken for heart health. The main brain benefit of this vitamin is preventing mental decline as you age, particularly when coupled with vitamin C.

Vitamin C and E together is a beneficial combination of vitamins for memory loss. When taken together, they’ve been linked to keeping a good memory, slowing memory loss, and even lowering the risk of getting Alzheimer’s and dementia by roughly 60%. Vitamin E can also minimize the damage caused by a stroke. By redirecting blood supply it can prevent brain cells from dying after the stroke.

The best vitamin E supplements contain the “d” form such as d-alpha tocopherol, not the “dl” forms which are instead synthetic.

Food sources that are abundant in Vitamin E

Seeds, nuts, avocados, olive oil, shrimp, green leafy vegetables, broccoli are some food items rich in vitamin E.

Vitamin K is the underrated vitamin that counters memory loss

This vitamin plays an essential role in blood clotting and puts Calcium in your bones. It keeps Calcium from depositing into your arteries as well.

Vitamin K helps keep your brain sharp as you age and boosts the speed of various brain functions.

It can improve your ability to remember words which is a big problem for many of us as we get age.

Vitamin K plays a role in preventing Alzheimer’s since patients are often deficient.

People who have taken a lot of antibiotics are considered a risk group for people who are deficient in this vitamin.

Food sources that are abundant in Vitamin K

Green leafy vegetables, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, parsley, celery, asparagus, fermented foods like sauerkraut.

Vitamin A deserves an A Plus for Its Benefits

Retinol and Carotenes is found in Vitamin A foods. One of the most important functions of vitamin A is to enhance vision. This is a fat-soluble vitamin that accumulates in your body and you can easily get too much of it from supplements, especially if you are someone who has poor eyesight.

While too much vitamin A also reduces the number of new neurons being created, a safe dose of vitamin A is generally considered to be 10,000 units per day.

Eating foods high in beta carotene will not cause vitamin A toxicity. Beta carotene is turned into vitamin A in the body on an as-needed basis. Beta-carotene is considered pretty safe to consume.

Food sources that are abundant in Vitamin A

Sweet potatoes, carrots, green leafy vegetables, winter squash, cantaloupe.

 

Do Multivitamins work for memory?

The Harvard School of Public Health recommends that all adults to take a multivitamin supplement as insurance to fill any nutritional gaps.

Taking a high-quality multivitamin supplement should supply your brain with all vitamin necessary. Multivitamin alone can improve your memory and overall brain function if you’re deficient.

Trusted Brands for the Best Vitamins for Memory

When you buy a certain brand, you put your trust in it to deliver what it has advertised. You also trust that the ingredients are in a usable form. Make sure to research various labels before you purchase the brand that you think is right for you! So generally Centrum would not cut it, search for quality multivitamins here.

Brain Specific Supplements:

Lumonol or MaxSynapse have been recommended by us countless times. These supplements contain the right quantity of ingredients in bioavailable form and are catered perfectly for cognitive needs.

The price and the fact that they are manufactured in the US in a GMP lab make them a no-brainer to buy.

Final Word on using Vitamins to Improve Memory & Focus

If you really want to improve your memory, make sure you start adding more brain foods to your diet. Take a high-quality multivitamin and consider other vitamins for certain situations. Smokers need more vitamin C, just as vegetarians need more B12.

Consider taking supplements if you are not able to fill in the gap naturally. Whether it is Vitamin K or Lumonol try them and see if they help you improve your focus and brain function. If you are unsure about the safety of taking these, consult your physician first.

Best Anti Aging Serums

TrackMyStack is the tool to be used when one needs to adhere to their medical treatment, we do this via reminders, a journal/diary and charts, and a myriad of other tools to help you manage your treatment such as reviews of treatments and interaction checkers etc — so it should come as no surprise the Anti Aging and Longevity community has started to become more and more active on our site.

Our web app started as a way for anyone to manage their treatment stack in one place, especially those of which that have a chronic condition. Over the months it evolved to help people with their ‘health goals’ as well, which saw a shift in users interested in cognitive enhancement (via nootropic stacks), and now we have added two new sections that we think are critically important to people going through different phases in life, and they are: Anti Aging Stacks and Prenatal Stacks.

Here we will quickly review the Top 5 Anti Aging Serums recommended by experts that we consulted while thinking about adding the Anti Aging section within our stacks database. These facial serums should provide the best bang for the buck and are designed to deliver substances to the skin to keep it looking and feeling great, they are not technically creams and or liquids, thus earning the name serums. The most common chemicals in these pre-mixed supplements are: Vitamin C, Retinol, Vitamin E, Collagen. Vitamin C being the most common as it helps reduce wrinkles and rejuvenates skin without using harsher synthetic chemicals. It in the end you get what you pay for and I would much rather recommend a reputable brand rather than a cheaper alternative (especially when it comes to your face!). Without a further ado, Jennifer F. from the NaturalBeauts blog will be reviewing a few serums, click to see other anti aging treatments.

 

#5 Vitamin C Serum by Xfacio Labs – $43

A topical serum that is highly concentrated and actively bio-available that helps battle any negative side effects from things like aging and sun damage. Prevention is better than the cure, and this is perfect if you want to maintain a youthful look, this serum helps control wrinkles, fine lines, crows feet and parched skin. This is a all natural organic formula which you can feel safe and comfortable using and the results are proven quickly.

#4 – Tranquil Collection Vitamin C Serum – $28

This is a 100% organic vitamin C facial serum for moisturized lips and eyes. The positive reviews for this serum speak for itself. The ingredients in this are: Aloe, Sodium Ascorbyl Phosphate, Cassia Angustifolia Seed Polysaccharide, MSM, Witch Hazel, L-Arginine, Vegetable Glycerin, Jojoba Oil, Phenoxyethanol, Ethyl Hexyl Glycerin. This is a gentle serum and less irritating than other forms of Vitamin C and thus makes a great choice for those with sensitive skin.

#3 – Image Vital C Hydrating Anti Aging Serum – $44

This serum is in the top 1,000 of all beauty products on Amazon, secondly this is claimed as a clinical grade serum that minimizes and soothes visible effects of environmentally damaging skin. Read this review by an Esthetician’s:

“This product is wonderful for all skin types. Rosacea, aging, sensitive, dehydrated, and even oily and combination. However, please take my advise as a licensed professional who works with these products. Do not buy from online sources. I would recommend going to a spa that sells the product because IMAGE does not sell via online resources. IMAGE only sells to licensed Physicians and Esthetician’s. The product you purchase could be watered down or tampered with anywhere other than its original source.”

#2 – Day by Day Beauty’s Anti Aging Vitamin C Serum for Women – $19

The reviews left for this supplement are overwhelmingly positive, this is a 1 fluid ounce of Day By Day Vitamin C serum that reduces among many things fine lines, and helps fade sun spots. It is a blend of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, and hyaluronic acid. The added bonus of buying this is that it has a 100% money back guarantee.

#1 – Amara Organics Vitamin C Serum with Hyaluronic Acid & Vitamin – $16.99

This formula has even more vitamin C than others, to a total of 20% and is gentle and effective. It has only plant-based ingredients, no alcohol, and made in the USA. Currently this is the highest rated serum in the market and worth every penny.

Many cosmetologists recommend these directions in using this top serum:
1) Wash and pat your skin dry.
2) Use toner before the serum if need to be used at all
3) Apply a small amount to face, neck and decollete
4) Use daily as needed.

Well there you have it, reviews of the top 5 anti aging wrinkle serums for your face, that are affordable, safe and healthy. Please leave a review if you try any of these.

Supplements Everyone Should Take

Health-Supplements-To-Take

Supplements are an addition to a optimal diet, thus there is no best supplement for anyone. However, there are supplements such as Vitamin C or Magnesium that everyone probably lacks in. Below is a re-print of a pretty well summarized post as to what you can take, originally found on PasteBin.

Vitamin B1 – Thiamin – 20mg/day – performs decarboxylation reactions; required for complete catabolism of sugars and keto acids; destroyed by alcohol use; deficiency produces neurasthenia, neurodegeneration, and metabolic syndrome.

Vitamin B2 – Riboflavin – 20mg/day – forms FAD, a ubiquitous cofactor used for 2-electron reductions, including the enzyme that detoxifies aminochromes. Along with NADH, needed to extract metabolic energy from foods

Vitamin B3 – Niacinamide or Niacin – 250 or 500mg/day (up to 2g/day; requirement is substantially increased during stressful conditions, eg. schizophrenia, and liver disease) – Precursor to NAD and NADPH, the most fundamental cofactors in living organisms. Functional deficiency affects all life processes. NADH is used to extract high-energy electrons from food-derived carbohydrates and proteins. NADPH is widely used by proteins in biosynthetic electron transfer reactions and is part of some antioxidant enzymes. Supplementation has been repeatedly found to have significant benefits in many (perhaps most) degenerative diseases. Niacinamide inhibits the breakdown of NAD.

Vitamin B5 – Pantothenate – 25mg/day – part of Coenzyme A; essential for fat metabolism and oxidative respiration; excessiely excreted in metabolic syndrome.

Vitamin B6 – Pyridoxal-5-Phosphate – 15mg/day – prone to oxidative destruction, especially when B3 is deficient; central to amino acid metabolism; deficiency arrests ‘non-essential’ protein synthesis; opioid addiction depletes vitamin B6.

Vitamin B9 – TetraHydroMethylFolate – 200ug/day – required to remethylate S-Adenosyl-Methionine; most people are functionally deficient; requirement increased by B12 deficiency; opioid addiction depletes folic acid.

Vitamin B12 – Methylcobalamin – 1000ug/day – normally produced by gut bacteria, which are impaired in everyone; required to recycle folic acid to allow for methylation; deficiency is associated with neurodegeneration.

Perhaps consider a High Bioavailable version of Vitamin B, click here to see one we recommend ($20).

Na-R-ALA – 10-100mg/day; along with thiamin (Alpha Lipoic Acid), oxidizes pyruvate produced by glycolysis; water/fat soluble antioxidant that recycles endogenous antioxidants; effective and non-toxic heavy metal chelator; low plasma levels are indicative of metabolic syndrome/diabetes; supplementation restores insulin sensitivity in diabetes and associated conditions (eg schizophrenia).

Vitamin D3 – Cholecalciferol – 5000 IU/day in winter, less with more sunlight exposure – produced from cholesterol by UV light in human skin. Mushroom skin produces the related compound Ergocalciferol, Vitamin D2, which can partially substitute for our own D3. Prevents calcium accumulation in soft tissue, plasma; prevents osteoporosis, may alleviate depression.

Vitamin E – d-Tocopherols – 30IU/day – up to 400IU/day depending on meat and PUFA consumption. Supplementation is not required if you eat only fruit. In most cases, avoid taking over 400IU/day. Best is to take a,b,g, and d (‘mixed’) tocopherols and tocotrienols rather than just a-tocopherol. Required for the hydrogenation of excess unsaturated fats and the prevention of their oxidation; spares and restores CoQ10. Antagonizes some of the effects of estrogen.

Magnesium – Magnesium Glycinate/chelate – 50-200mg/day Mg – required for ATP synthesis and retention; required for calcium absorption and utilization; prevents muscle cramping and bruxism. Consider L-Threonate for cognitive enhancement as it passes the BBB more easily into the brain.

Vitamin K2 – Menaquinone – 2mg/day – required for protein carboxylation; prevents bone demineralization and soft-tissue calcification; necessary for proper vitamin D and calcium metabolism; required for effective blood clotting. Vitamin D supplementation necessitates vitamin K supplementation. MK4 is the most active form of vitamin K in non-hepatic tissues.

Zinc – Zinc Picolinate/chelate – ~10mg/day of zinc – required for some antioxidant enzymes (Zn-SOD); required for insulin synthesis; various metabolic roles. Required for MAP binding to microtubules, and hence the structural integrity of neuronal dendrites. Disruption of Zn metabolism by aluminium is related to alzheimerism. Consider ZMA.

Selenium – Selenomethionine – 100ug/day – required for some antioxidant enzymes (GPx); required for the conversion of thyroid hormone to its active form (T3). Deficiency is associated with schizophrenia and diabetes.

Chlorella/Spirulina – 1-20g/day – single celled algae; extremely high in nearly all vitamins and minerals, as well as a wide variety of other biological molecules – good for detoxification. Can be eaten in unlimited amounts, like food.

Vitamin C – Preferably Magnesium, Potassium, or Sodium ascorbate – 10g/day; up to 300g/day for severe degenerative diseases – Apes cannot synthesize vitamin C and require enormous amounts from our diets. Required for many reduction/hydroxylation reactions (eg, synthesis of collagen, norepinephrine, carnitine). Spares and restores other antioxidants such as vitamin E and ALA. Subclinical deficiency impairs capillary integrity and catecholamine metabolism; promotes CVD, cancer, parkinsonism, schizophrenia, diabetes, and most other degenerative diseases. Cannot be obtained in even close to sufficient amounts, even on an all-fruit diet, since domesticated fruits are much lower in vitamin C and flavonoids than wild ones. Large (25g+) doses can be used to overcome opiate addiction, and to relieve pain. Adverse effects are extremely uncommon, with the exception of gastrointestinal discomfort at very high doses (which may itself be therapeutic).

Flavonoids – >500mg/day – catechol flavonoids are required for vitamin C activity; flavonoids improve the efficiency of many metabolic processes; substantially expand the protective capabilities of endogenous antioxidants; largely responsible for the health benefits of many foods. Berries, tea, chocolate, onions, and wine are well-studied sources.

Reishi/Cordyceps/Lion’s Mane – 1-5g/day – medicinal mushrooms; contain a multitude of natural nootropics, including noopept-like substances; broadly effective at preventing and reversing brain damage.
If you had to choose six of these, they’d be Vitamin B3, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, and vitamin K. They are inexpensive and nearly everyone is functionally deficient in them. Everything listed should be taken by anyone living in civilization who seeks to avoid disease and prevent aging.

For Vitamin C, try to find one that also includes flavonoids. For B3, niacin works about as well as niacinamide but also produces flushing and has blood lipid- and cholesterol-lowering effects.